Contacts of Eclipse

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Central eclipse is often used as a generic term for a total, annular, or hybrid eclipse. This is, however, not completely correct: the definition of a central eclipse is an eclipse during which the central line of the umbra touches the Earth's surface. It is possible, though extremely rare, that part of the umbra intersects with Earth (thus creating an annular or total eclipse), but not its central line. This is then called a non-central total or annular eclipse. The next non-central solar eclipse will be on April 29, 2014. This will be an annular eclipse. The next non-central total solar eclipse will be on April 9, 2043. 

The phases observed during a total eclipse are called:
First Contact - when the moon's shadow first becomes visible on the solar disk. Some also name individual phases between First and Second Contact e.g. Pac-Man phase.
Second Contact - starting with Baily's Beads {cause by light shining through valleys on the moon's surface} and the Diamond Ring. Almost the entire disk is covered.
Totality - with the shadow of the moon obscuring the entire disk of the sun and only the corona visible
Third Contact - when the first bright light becomes visible and the shadow is moving away from the sun. Again a Diamond Ring may be observed.